NVIS Antennas

Near vertical incidence skywave, or NVIS, is a skywave radio-wave propagation path that provides usable signals in the range between groundwave and conventional skywave distances—usually 30–400 miles (50–650 km). It is used for military and paramilitary communications, broadcasting, especially in the tropics, and by radio amateurs. The radio waves travel near-vertically upwards into the ionosphere, where they are refracted back down and can be received within a circular region up to 650 km from the transmitter. If the frequency is too high (that is, above the critical frequency of the ionospheric F layer), refraction fails to occur and if it is too low, absorption in the ionospheric D layer may reduce the signal strength.
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If you are needing more power for your QRP transmitter:
e.g. The 20W HF Amplifier II Kit V1.5a #15


OE1GPA Homepage

NVIS 40/80m
40/80m (OE3MHU)

NVIS Operation Manual